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  •   投资管理体制创新实现重大突破   ——访商务部研究院外国投资研究所研究员聂平香

      □ 经济日报·中国经济网记者 冯其予

      自2013年9月29日中国第一个自贸试验区在上海成立以来,目前,我国自贸试验区已拓展到12个。5年来,各自贸试验区以制度创新为核心,深入探索、大胆尝试,已形成153项可复制可推广的改革试点经验,并分4批向全国推广复制。商务部研究院外国投资研究所研究员聂平香日前在接受经济日报记者采访时指出,自贸试验区建设的核心是围绕转变政府职能,营造良好营商环境,特别是投资管理体制创新实现重大突破。

      问:自贸试验区成立以来取得了哪些创新成果和经验?

      答:5年来,自贸试验区通过探索建立与国际通行规则相衔接的制度体系,聚焦投资、贸易、金融创新和事中事后监管等领域,形成了一批基础性制度和核心制度创新,核心是围绕转变政府职能,营造市场化、国际化、法治化的营商环境。

      以负面清单管理为核心,不断创新投资管理体制。自贸试验区率先试点外商投资准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理模式,自贸试验区负面清单特别管理措施从2013年的190条缩减到2018年的45条,下降了近八成。负面清单之外的外商投资由审批制改为备案制,手续办理时间从原来的平均29天压缩至3个工作日内。

      以贸易便利化为重点,不断创新贸易监管制度。积极推进试点“先入区、后报关”“货物状态分类监管”“第三方检验结果采信”等举措,极大推进贸易便利化。率先上线国际贸易“单一窗口”,并不断丰富功能,企业可以“一站式”办理通关事项。自贸试验区通关效率平均提高40%。

      稳步推进金融开放,在人民币跨境使用、投融资汇兑便利化、资本项目部分可自由兑换、利率市场化、外汇管理体制等方面加大了创新力度。如在上海设立自由贸易账户,并由人民币拓展到外币;广东、天津、福建自贸试验区试点推出中小微企业贷款风险补偿、“银税互动”诚信小微企业贷款免除担保等。

      以防控风险为底线,探索建立了事前诚信承诺、事中评估分类、事后联动奖惩的自贸试验区全链条信用监管体系。搭建信用信息公示平台。建立金融协同机制,加强跨部门与跨行业的业务监管协调和信息共享。强化风险监测、分析和预警,建立以自由贸易账户为核心的跨境资金流动检测管理系统。同时强化政务公开,积极探索推进“互联网+政务”模式,构筑网上政务大厅、综合监管平台和公共信用信息服务平台三大基础设施,优化政府服务模式和流程。

      问:自贸试验区建设在扩大改革开放,服务国家战略方面作出了哪些重大贡献?

      答:推动全国外商投资管理体制重大变革。今年6月,全国版的外商投资负面清单正式出台,我国在全国范围内真正实现了对外商投资实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理的模式,外商投资管理体制实现了重大突破。

      事中事后监管制度推向全国。2015年《国务院关于“先照后证”改革后加强事中事后监管的意见》《国务院办公厅关于推广随机抽查规范事中事后监管的通知》发布,2016年国务院印发了推进简政放权放管结合优化服务改革工作要点的通知,我国市场监管逐步与国际接轨。

      我国通过负面清单形式率先在自贸试验区探索主动扩大和深化对内对外开放,尤其是服务领域开放,包括金融、电信、法律、会计、律师、医疗、航运、旅游等。同时,积极将自贸试验区的开放政策和措施向全国其他地方延伸。随着全国版负面清单的出台,自贸试验区扩大和深化开放措施基本向全国铺开,带动了全国对外开放水平的大跃升。

      问:未来自贸试验区将在哪些方向继续探索?

      答:进一步加大制度创新的系统集成。下一步将探索打通自贸试验区与各部委、自贸试验区各部门与当地政府上级部门、自贸试验区内部各职能部门以及自贸试验区之间的阻塞环节,进一步提升制度创新的整体性、系统性和有效性。

      进一步扩大对外开放。在现有负面清单的基础上,结合自贸试验区的发展需求,进一步探索缩短负面清单。

      进一步创新贸易监管制度。进一步探索创新贸易自由化和便利化制度,不断优化监管措施,加快有效监管协作、完善国际贸易“单一窗口”,推动贸易功能和新型贸易加快发展。

    冯其予

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