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  •   很多人常把“希望法律管管”挂在嘴边,可是法律真的什么都能管吗?近日,有媒体报道,江苏将立法反对“丧偶式”育儿,家长拒绝辅导孩子或被计入征信。新闻中提到,11月19日,《江苏省家庭教育促进条例(草案)》在江苏省十三届人大常委会第六次会议上被提交审议,省人大内务司法委员会委员莫宗通在《条例(草案)》的说明中提到,制定本条例其实是回应全社会加快家庭教育立法愿望的实际行动。

      引起舆论关注的是其中一条:父母双方应当共同履行对未成年子女的家庭教育义务,不得以离异或者其他理由拒绝履行。一方开展家庭教育,另一方应当予以配合。对于父母不履行家庭教育义务,孩子可以向学校、居委会以及相关单位或组织求助,相关单位和组织应当及时处理。

      此次针对“丧偶式”育儿入法,不由让人联想起“常回家看看入法”的那场争论。2013年,新修订的《中华人民共和国老年人权益保障法》实施,新法规定,家庭成员应当关心老年人的精神需求,不得忽视、冷落老年人;与老年人分开居住的家庭成员,应当经常看望或者问候老年人。虽然在该法律条文颁布当天,江苏无锡就出现了首个判例,但在日后,我们还是看到了因为缺少可操作性,法条陷入执行难的尴尬境地。

      必须肯定,无论是对于子女多回家陪伴父母还是家庭教育缺位,立法提出的出发点都是好的,都希望能够扭转目前社会中某些失范的行为。但善意的初衷,不一定能取得理想的结果。回家或者是育儿都是道德义务,应由道德评价系统来进行行为的约束。在现实生活中,不能以道德弱化为由,将道德范畴的行为规范随意上升至法律层面。同样,法律也有法律管辖的范围,其管辖的应当是最基础的社会关系,法律的标准应当是一个“最低标准”。

      法律的生命力在于其适用度和执行力。这并不是说不能进行相应立法,而是这种立法只能是把愿望变成纸上的法律条文,而在现实中真正的作用值得商榷。如果不能执行,最后使人们对法律也失去了敬畏心理。就“丧偶式”育儿来说,经常在家庭教育中缺位的父亲究竟要在育儿中占有多么重要的比重,哪里是底线,是一周陪孩子吃一次饭辅导一次作业,还是一周三次,法律很难给出明确的界定,而在育儿中参与程度低究竟会受到何种惩戒,也很难量化。

      我们也应该认识到,无论是年轻人不能经常回家看看,还是父亲们忙于工作,疏于子女的教育,有的时候非不为也,实不能也,背后或许有着不足与外人道的生活的压力和困窘。当常识性的人伦行为变成大众普遍关注、舆论场探讨的问题,我们更该好好考虑的也许是全社会的无奈和亲情教化的回归。

      (作者:张焱)

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